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<p align="justify">Ume Saami is spok … <p align="justify">Ume Saami is spoken in an area which extends west of the Lappmark border between the [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">Pite River</span>]] in the north and the Ume River in the south, apart from the northern part of the municipality of [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">Arjeplog</span>]], where [[Pite Saami language|Arjeplog Saami]] is spoken. The border between Norrbotten and Västerbotten runs through the Ume Saami region, following the [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">Skellefte River</span>]]. The Saami Villages where Ume Saami is or has been spoken are: Gran and Ran in Sorsele, Umbyn in northern Tärnaby and the Forest Saami Villages of Maskaure in the southern municipality of Arjeplog, East Kikkejaure, West Kikkejaure and Mausjaure in the municipality of Arvidsjaur, as well as the Malå Forest Saami Village in the municipality of Malå. Today, there are few Saamis under the age of 70 who can speak Ume Saami. Most of the people who do speak the language today are found in the municipalities of Arvidsjaur and Sorsele Ammarnäs. The last generation of Ume Saami-speakers in Malå is gone today. Ume Saami forms a transition between the northern and southern Saami varieties in Sweden. The vocabulary is similar to the more northern Saami, even though there are also some words with only southern distribution. The vowel system is southern in nature, whereas the consonant systemhas clear northern equivalents. The vowels in a stressed syllable (in practice this is usually the first syllable) is affected by the length and the quality of the vowel of the following syllable. This is called metaphony (umlaut) and means that the vowel change depends on which of the three long vowels or diphthongs á, uo or ie (corresponding to Lule Saami á, o and e) or the short vowels a, a or e (Lule Saami: a, u and i) appear in the second syllable, i.e. <i>viessuot</i> to live , <i>vyössan</i> they lived ( Lule Saami: viessot, viessun). The mutation is also found further north, but will gradually be of less importance ([[North Saami language|North Saami]]). With regard to this phenomenon, it is Arjeplog Saami that bears the greatest similarity to Ume Saami. Particular for the two varieties is the replacement of the diphthong -oa- (cf. Lule Saami goahte Saami tent ) by a long -å- (gåhtie and gåhte respectively). Ume Saami also lacks the characteristic vowel harmony of Lule Saami, which means that short -å- will change originally short -a- in the following sillable into -å- in words as dållå fire (cf. Ume Saami dålla). The lengthening of the short -i- and -u- in the second sillable of a word i.e. Ume Saami guvllat and South Saami govledh (cf. North and Lule Saami gullat hear ) differentiates these varieties from the northern ones. </p>
<p align="justify">Saami consonant gradation reaches down to the Ume River and affects consonants or consonant clusters between the stressed and unstressed syllables in a word (so-calledstem consonants). A change in stem consonants occurs in Ume Saami after a diphtong or long vowel in the first syllable i.e. <em>mánná</em> child , <em>mánán</em> the child s , but <em>mannat</em> to walk , <em>mannuv</em> I walk ( Lule Saami <em>mánná</em>, <em>máná</em>, <em>mannat</em>, <em>manáv</em>). Also common to Ume and Arjeplog Saami is the addition of <em>g</em>, <em>b</em>, and <em>d</em> in certain stem consonant combinations i.e. <em>tjålbmie</em> and <em>tjålbme</em>, corresponding to Lule Saami <em>tjoalmme</em> strait . Again similar changes in the gradation of the stem consonant cluster -<em>kt</em>- are characteristic of both these regions: <em>luoktta</em>, <em>luoktan</em>/<em>luokta</em>, but in Lule Saami: <em>luokta</em> bay , <em>luovta</em> the bay s . In some central areas, these varieties have retained voiced and voiceless dental fricatives (written <em>d</em> and <em>t</em>) in the same places in words as in North Saami i.e. <em>gijdda</em> and <em>gidda</em>, cf. North Saami <em>gidda</em>, but Lule Saami gidá spring . Thus the Ume Saami words <em>åddiet</em> and <em>åddájit</em> correspond to the Lule Saami forms <em>oadet</em> to sleep and <em>oaddát</em> to fall asleep . Trisyllabic noun stems in Ume Saami have retained a final vowel even in the nominative, i.e. <em>mánátje</em> little child (Arjeplog and Lule Saami <em>mánásj</em>). </p>
<p align="justify">Case endings have been retained in Ume Saami in a more original form than further north. Inflected forms of the word <em>gåhtie</em> Saami tent in the singular and the plural (<em>gådieh</em>) in Arvidsjaur are, genitive: <em>gådien</em>/<em>gudij</em>; accusative: <em>gådiev</em>/<em>gudijde</em>; illative: <em>gåhtáje</em>/<em>gudijde</em>; inessive: <em>gådiesne</em>/<em>gudijne</em>; elative: <em>gådieste</em>/<em>gudijste</em>; comitative: <em>gudijne</em>/<em>gudij</em>; essive: <em>gåhtiene</em>. The verb forms show less difference from the northern varieties, apart from a more complex metaphony. The conjugation of dahkat to do in the present and the past tense (singular) is: <em>dahkuv</em>/<em>dehkuv</em>, <em>dahkh</em>/<em>dehkh</em>, <em>dahká</em>/<em>dahkij</em>, (dual) <em>dehken</em>/<em>dahkijmen</em>, <em>dahkabehten</em>/<em>dahkijden</em>, <em>dahkaveägan</em>/<em>dahkijgen</em>, (plural) <em>dahkabe</em>/<em>dahkijme</em>, <em>dahkabehte</em>/<em>dahkijde</em>. Due to the resemblance of Ume Saami metaphony and morphology to South Saami scholar usually categorised Ume Saami with South Saami in the broadest meaning . Less attention was paid to consonantal gradation and the more northern vocabulary. The character of Ume Saami as an area containing clear characteristics of both northern and southern elements demands that this variety should be considered as a transitional variety. </p>
<p align="justify">In order to be able to publish Ume Saami place names on public maps and to show the character of this variety of Saami in a consistent a consistent manner, a separate orthography has been created. This orthography is, as far as is possible, the same as that of the closest northern region (Arjeplog and Jokkmokk). Apart from dental fricatives (see above), there are certain vowel sounds that require particular solutions, e.g. <em>ue</em>, <em>yö</em>, <em>uö</em>, and <em>eä</em>, which are not used further north. Unlike Lule and North Saami, diphthongs are written in unstressed syllables with <em>uo</em> and <em>ie</em> (<em>cf</em>. Lule Saami s <em>o</em> and <em>e</em>). Lule Saami s <em>u</em> and <em>i</em> (o- and e- vowels with reduced quantity) in unstressed syllables this corresponds in Ume Saami to a and e respectively. The writing of a long <em>a</em>-sound as <em>á</em> and the <em>ng</em>-sound as (ang-merkki) common to all western Saami varieties apart from [[South Saami language|South Saami]]. The first Saami written language took Ume Saami as its basis until the latter part of the nineteenth century. The activities of the church created Saami writing during the centuries after the conversion of the Saami. Among the most important books for the development of the language were the translations of the New Testament in 1755 and the entire Bible in 1811, into a language that was mainly Ume Saami.</p>
<p align="justify"><br> [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">Arvidsjaur</span>]]<br> [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">Arjeplog</span>]]<br> [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">Calleberg</span>]], Axel<br> [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">Moosberg</span>]], Nils</p>
[[Modern Saami languages|Other Saami languages]]
[[Table of contents: Languages and naming|Table of contents: Languages and naming]]<BR><BR>Languages and naming]]<BR><BR> +