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Skolt Saami language
Id 0108  +
Kieli englanti  +
Kirjoittaja Ulla-Maija Kulonen +
Otsikko Skolt Saami language +
Has queryThis property is a special property in this wiki. Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language + , Skolt Saami language +
Categories Articles in English  + , Languages and naming  +
MuokkausaikaThis property is a special property in this wiki. 22 joulukuu 2014 12:36:10  +
Has default formThis property is a special property in this wiki. Artikkeli  +
TekstiThis property is a special property in this wiki. <P align="justify"> Skolt Saami is s<P align="justify"> Skolt Saami is spoken by appr. 300 native speakers mainly in the municipality of Inari in Finland. There are few speakers of Skolt Saami also in the Russian Federation in Murmansk area. After World War II the majority of Skolt Saamis were settled in Finland after their traditional dwelling areas were ceded to the Soviet Union. Skolt Saami has two main dialect groups 1) the Northern consisting of Neiden dialect in Norway (extinct) and the dialects of Paaččjokk (Paatsjoki), and Pechenga and 2) the Southern with the dialects of Suõˊnnjel (Suonikylä, southern Pechenga) and Njuõˊttjäuˊrr-Sââˊrvesjäuˊrr (Notozero-Girvasozero). The neighbouring Saami languages are North and [[Inari Saami language|Inari Saami]], also spoken in Inari and [[Akkala Saami language|Akkala]] and [[Kildin Saami language|Kildin Saami]] in the east. In Inari Finnish is the language with the most speakers today. Also many ethnic Skolt Saamis of the younger generation in Finland are monolinguals in Finnish. The language is being revitalized in a language nest which has been working since 199?. </P> <P align="justify"> Characteristic feature in the phonology that distinguish Skolt Saami from [[North Saami language|North Saami]] is the extremely rich vowel system with an abundancy of diphtongs: the nine vowels represent four different grades on the high/low scale (high vowels are <i>u</i> and <i>i</i>, half high <i>o, õ</i> and <i>e</i>, half low <i>å</i> and <i>â</i>, low vowels <i>a</i> and <i>ä</i>); three of these can be regarded as mid vowels on the front/back scale: <i>õ, å</i> and <i>â</i>. These vowels can be short or long, and they can be combined to diphtongs, 13 ofwhich are described in the simplified script. A further significant feature of Skolt phonology is the heavy »Umlaut» where the alternation of vowel of the unstressed syllable has had influence on the first syllable vowel (resembling the system of [[South Saami language|South Saami]] with the exception that the vowel that caused the alternation often has disappeared), e.g. <i>mõõnnâp</i> 'we go' vs. <i>mâˊnne</i> 'they go', <i>kaggâd</i> 'to raise', <i>kägg</i> 's/he raises', <i>lieˊšše</i> 'they were lying', <i>leäšš</i> 's/he is lying', <i>liäžžam</i> 'I am lying'; <i>puoccu</i> 'reindeer (pl.), <i>puäzz</i> 'reindeer (sg.)). The final vowels have either disappeared or they are pronounced very weakly, voiceless, and they are not written in the standard language.Also the historical final consonants have undergone more severe changes than in the [[Western Saami languages|western Saami]] languages and that is why umlaut and other stem alternations play a significant role in grammatical functions. Palatalization is not only a characteristic of individual dental consonants (<i>nj,(l)lj</i> as in North Saami) but also a phenomenon that affects whole sequences (the consonant centre and the vowel preceding it). The palatalized sequences are marked with ˊ (in front of the consonant centre). A consonant characteristic to Skolt saami and lacking in all other Saami languages is aheavily palatalized <i>k</i> (written <i>ǩ</i>) with its voiced counterpart <i>ǧ</i> (the three <i>g</i> sounds in Skolt Saami are <i>g</i>, medial plosive (as in <i>kaggâd</i> 'to raise'), <i>ǧ</i>, palatalized medial plosive (<i>käˊǧǧe</i> 'they raise') and <i>ǥ</i>, voiced fricative(?) (as in viiǥǥâm'I take') </P> <P align="justify"> The noun in Skolt Saami has 9 case endings (<i>piäˊss</i> 'nest'): </P> <TABLE border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"> <TR> <TD> </TD> <TD><b>Sg.</b></TD> <TD><b>Pl.</b></TD> <TD> </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Nominative</TD> <TD><i>piäˊss</i></TD> <TD><i>piäˊzz</i></TD> <TD> </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Accusative</TD> <TD><i>piäˊzz</i></TD> <TD>pieˊzzid</TD> <TD> </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Genitive</TD> <TD><i>piaˊzz</i></TD> <TD><i>pieˊzzi</i></TD> <TD> </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Illative</TD> <TD><i>peässa</i></TD> <TD><i>pieˊzzid</i></TD> <TD>'into the nest(s)'</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Locative</TD> <TD><i>piäˊzzest</i></TD> <TD><i>pieˊzzin</i></TD> <TD>'in/from the nest(s)'</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Comitative</TD> <TD><i>pieˊzzin</i></TD> <TD><i>pieˊzzivuim</i></TD> <TD>'with the nest(s)'</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Abessive</TD> <TD><i>piäˊzztää</i></TD> <TD><i>pieˊzzitää</i></TD> <TD>'without nest(s)'</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Essive</TD> <TD><i>piäˊssen</i></TD> <TD> </TD> <TD>'as a nest'</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Partitive</TD> <TD>piäˊssed</TD> <TD> </TD> <TD>e.g. čiččâm p. '7 nests'</TD> </TR> </TABLE> <P align="justify"> The possessive suffixes are <i>-m, -n</i> in the first persons (sg. and pl.), <i>-d</i> in the second persons; the suffixes of the third persons are and -<i>s</i> (sg.) and -<i>z</i> (pl.). The case endings have often somewhat different forms in front of a possessive suffix. Dual is present only in the personal pronouns (Sg <i>mon, ton, son</i>, Dual <i>muana, tuana, suana</i>, Pl. <i>mij, tij, sij</i>) but not as an inflectional category with possessive or (verbal) personal suffixes as in North Saami. So there are six actual personal forms in the verbal inflection but also a »seventh person» form, which is used to express the action (experience) of an indefinite person. An example of the verbal inflection (<i>kuullâd</i> 'to hear', indicative mood) </P> <TABLE border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"> <TR> <TD> </TD> <TD> </TD> <TD><b>Present</b></TD> <TD><b>Past</b></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD><b>Sg</b></TD> <TD><b>1<sup>st</sup></b></TD> <TD><i>kuulâm</i></TD> <TD><i>kuˊllem</i></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> </TD> <TD><b>2<sup>nd</sup></b></TD> <TD><i>kuulak</i></TD> <TD><i>kuˊlliǩ</i></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> </TD> <TD><b>3<sup>rd</sup></b></TD> <TD><i>kooll</i></TD> <TD>kuuli</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD><b>Pl</b></TD> <TD><b>1<sup>st</sup></b></TD> <TD><i>kuullâp</i></TD> <TD><i>kuulim ~ kuulin</i></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> </TD> <TD><b>2<sup>nd</sup></b></TD> <TD><i>kuullveˊted</i></TD> <TD><i>kuulid</i></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> </TD> <TD><b>3<sup>rd</sup></b></TD> <TD><i>koˊlle ~ koˊlla</i></TD> <TD><i>kuˊlle</i></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> </TD> <TD><b>Indefinite</b></TD> <TD><i>kuulât</i></TD> <TD><i>kuˊlleš</i></TD> </TR> </TABLE> <P align="justify"> The Skolt Saami literary language was first established in the beginning of 1970's. Before that the language had only been written for scientific purpose with phonetic alphabet (T. I. Itkonen: Koltan ja kuolanlapin sanakirja 1958). The first introductory book in Skolt saami was »Koltansaamen opas» by Mikko korhonen, Jouni Mosnikoff and Pekka Sammallahti (1973) followed by <i>Aabbâs, jiäˊnnǩiell 1</i> by Sammallahti (1973), <i>Jiäˊnnǩiõll 1A</i> (Satu Mosnikoff & Jouni Mosnikoff 1976) and <i>Jiäˊnnǩiõll 2, lookkamǩeˊrjj</i> by Satu Mosnikoff (1977). Orthodox religious literature has been translated into Skolt Saami (<i>Risttoummi moˊlidvaǩeˊrjj</i>, (rukouskirja) 1983, Jevvan????). Jaakko Gauriloff has written lyrics to modern saami music (CD <i>Kuäˊcǩǩem suäjai vueˊlln</i> Under the wings of the eagle 1991). </P> <P>Voice sample:</P> <P align="justify"> Mon leäm Erkki Lumisalmi šõddâm Aanar kåå dd Njeällem siidâst. Leäm nuõrttsämlaž. Puärrâs lee puättâm Peäccmest mâŋŋa väinn ko Peäccam joouti e pet Ruõššnjânnma, nuˊtt ko tõt lij leämmoški ääi jeb. Ko liˊjjim uˊcc päˊrnn de mij doma maainstin pâI säämas da seämma tõn siõm siidâst puk maainste säämas, nääi t ǩiõll jieˊli. Puärsab olmmo maainste nuˊbben ǩiõllân ruõššǩiõll de tõt ǩiõll še leäi tõ l touddsab ko täˊbbe. </P> <P align="justify"> Täˊbbe mon jeälstam Âˊvvlest Uˊcc-Peäccmest. Leäm 20 eeˊjj leämmõš djakonen tääˊben säämi kõõskâst da tõn raajest mon leäm še mätt tjam sääˊmǩiõll škooulin, meerlažškooulâst še da ooskâldõõzz. Ortodokslaž mätǩǩpappvuõd päiˊǩǩ lij Âˊvvlest da mona paappi jååˊtteb pukveeˊzz sääˊmjânmest da määˊtǩ lie kuuˊǩǩ. </P> <P align="justify"> Täˊst tuejest lij tõˊst puerr, što vuäžž ooummivuim maainsted jiiˊjâs ǩiõll ko ceerkav paapp jie siõlttâd säämas. </P> <P align="justify"> Ko jeälsteb sääˊmjânnmest de tääiˊben mij sluuˊžab nuˊtt lääˊdd ko še sääˊmǩiõlin. Tõt lij poˊhttâm jääˊnab jååˊrqqlattem tuejid nu tt ceerkav ko jeeˊres veˊrǥǥneeˊǩǩid. Mij leeˊp nuˊtt siõmm narood da ooccainn leeˊp kook tuejjeep sääˊmǩiõllsa jååˊrqqlattâm tuejaid de tõt lij tuõ jstââllam tuejid. Ko lij nuˊtt siõm narood ooumaž de joudd leedd maaŋgnallšem ääˊššin mieˊldd, toubd jiiˊjjes jee resnallšem kulttuur ooumžem hå ti I llä pukinääˊššin puerr äˊšš toubdi leša âlgg tuejjed nuˊtt ko puerast põˊstt. </P> <P align="justify"> Mon leäm leämmõš sõrgg neljj ii jje Sääˊmteeˊǥǥ vuäzzlan. Tõt lij poˊhttâm määŋgit ääˊššI âlttsab. Ooskam što täˊst tuejjeb puki säämi ääˊššI ooudâsviikkmõšše. Jiičč ääˊjstam što mij sääˊmǩiõll vâˊllen jieˊlvõõttsi täˊst oouaˊdâs. Leäm optimist. </P> ([http://www.helsinki.fi/~sugl_smi/aani/Kielinaytteet/Koltansaame.mp3 sound sample]) <BR><BR> [[Modern Saami languages|Other Saami languages]]<BR><BR> [[Table of contents: Languages and naming|Table of contents: Languages and naming]]<BR><BR>Languages and naming]]<BR><BR>  +
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