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Kirjoittaja Minna-Riikka Järvinen +
Otsikko Music +
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MuokkausaikaThis property is a special property in this wiki. 31 joulukuu 2014 09:14:10  +
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TekstiThis property is a special property in this wiki. <P align="justify"> Music has been, <P align="justify"> Music has been, and continues to be, intimately linked to the Saamis world view and culture, which are formed by their living environment, way of life, occupations and beliefs. Sources indicate that music among them was mainly vocal ([[Joik - traditional song|Yoik traditional song]]), in which profane and religious music had a mutual influence on each other. The relationship between them is not exactly known because from the seventeenth century on colonialist conversion to Christianity tried to obliterate all forms of music that were related to pagan beliefs. </P> <P align="justify"> Saami music expresses the relationship to nature which is intrinsic in the culture, above all in tunes which interpret natural omens. In these nature, in the form of animals and birds, occupies a position of equality with man. A Siberian jay or a squirrel means good luck, while the sight of a tit or a hare tells a hunter that he would do better to stay at home. Chants were also made about religious beings and deities like the sun. They expressed dedication to the spirits and consecration of the fells and lakes that they were thought to inhabit. In these pieces, vocal music had a special mediating function between the natural and the supernatural. The best examples of such pieces are luohtas that summoned personal guardian spirits to help one cross the frontier between the natural world and the supernatural. The existence of such pieces is only evidenced in written sources, so there is no information available about their musical form. Another feature of Saami music is worship chants (<i>tolas juoigam</i>), which were linked to cult rituals, like worship and sacrifice to a [[Sieidi (engl. ver.)|<i>seita</i>]]. The chanting was led by the headman of the Lapp village, a shaman or other important person. No recordings of these pieces have survived. However, from the written sources one can assume that worship chants were fairly long and narrative in character. Jaakko [[Fellman Jacob (engl.ver.)|Fellman]] recorded the following worship chant to the seita of Taatsi: </P> <P align="justify"> To Taatsi seita will I bring <BR> Copper coins for the grain. <BR> For the grain I'll bring, <BR> If the crop is good, <BR> Brass rings on Monday, <BR> Before the day has dawned. <BR> At midday the reindeer's antlers <BR> I'll bring for felling the bull. <BR> I'll bring horns of ram <BR> Before the witch of the woods, <BR> If I should prosper well. <BR> But if ill I should fare, <BR> From nine tree tops I'll take the tar, <BR> And fire I ll set to this sacred spot, <BR> And I ll seek another site. <BR> If I prosper well, <BR> Ten great bulls I'll sacrifice <BR> At the height of their rutting time. <BR> And wild reindeer I'll bring <BR> For a fair crop of grain, <BR> For a beaver and a bear <BR> Wild reindeer and foxes, <BR> Crossbred foxes and cats, <BR> And when I get all these, <BR> I'll bring many sacrifices, <BR> Silver trinkets for the grain I'll bring, <BR> And further for foxes and gluttons <BR> A third part of the copper coins. <BR></P> <P align="justify"> (Source: J. [[Fellman Jacob (engl.ver.)|Fellman]]: <i>Anteckningar under min vistelse I Lappmarken</i> Notes on my Sojourn in Lapland. From: <i>Lappisk Mytologi och Lapplänsk Sägen</i> 1903, pp. 230 231) According to early written sources, music among the Saami was linked to shamanism and events connected with it. Common features of the descriptions of witchcraft in these documents is the casting of spells (in order to obtain information or a cure), the state of trance obtained by chanting, playing the drum and dancing and finally the reporting of the information obtained during the trance. According to the sources, the shamanistic event included two types of music. First, the shaman ([[Noaidi (engl. ver.)|<i>noaide</i>]]), chanted and played on the drum. Secondly, the shaman s assistant chanted while the shaman was in a state of trance, and also in order to bring him out of the trance. The sources offer only hints about the kind of music that was performed at these shamanistic rituals.</P> <P align="justify"> The most commonly mentioned instrument that was used by the Saami is the [[Sivua ei vielä ole|<span style="color:red !important;">shaman's drum</span>]] or troll drum ([[The Saami shaman drum|<i>goavddis</i>]]). It was an extremely important ritual accoutrement of the witch. There were two main types of drum. One was a goblet-shaped drum hollowed out of wood with a membrane of reindeer skin stretched over it. It was held by two holes cut lengthwise in a convex base. The other was a frame drum with a reindeer skin membrane stretched over the ring of a riddle-shaped frame. The membranes were decorated with figures drawn with a red dye obtained from the bark of the grey alder (Alnus incana). Ernst [[Manker, Ernst (engl. ver.)|Manker]] divides the drums into seven different types according to their structure and the decoration of the membranes. The decoration of the drums of the more southern regions has the sun at the centre while those of other regions were mainly marked off into segments, and they indicated a view in which the world and reality were divided onto different levels. The drum was beaten with a T-shaped stick made of reindeer bone.</P> <P align="justify"> Other musical instruments known to have been used by the Saami include the [[Fadnu-instrument|fádnu]], a whistle flute with 3-5 finger holes. It was made from a shoot of [[Boska (Saami word to a plant species)|angelica]] (Angelica archangelica). Rattles are also known to have been used.</P> <P align="justify"> Archive collections:<BR> The most important Finnish archive collections of Saami music are: # The Archives of the Department of Fold Tradition of the University of Tampere (recordings of luohti and leuˊdd chanting);<BR> # The collections of the Finnish Language Record Archive of the the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland in Helsinki (recordings of luohti and leuˊdd chanting);<BR> # The Talvadas collection of the Department of Folklore of the University of Turku (recordings of luohti chanting).<BR> # The Folklore Archive of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki (recordings of luohti and leuˊdd chanting).<BR> The most significant collection of Saami music in Sweden is in the Landsmåls och Folkminnes Arkiv in Uppsala. It includes the collections of Karl Tirén and Björn Colliner (recordings of luohti, vuolle and vuolie chanting). In Norway, the University of Tromsø has collected Saami musical material. Additionally, an attempt has been madethere tocollect allthe major publications dealing with Saami music. There is also Saami music in archives in Russia. The sound record archive of the St Pertersburg department of the Folklore Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences contains the Kert-Zaikov Collection (1960-1975), which comprises recodings of <i>leuˊdd</i> and <i>luvvjt</i> chanting. There are also collections of Saami music in Estonia, including a compilation of recordings of <i>leuˊdd</i> and <i>luvvjt</i> chanting made by Jaan Sarvin and Igor Bogdanov. It is in the possession of Radio Tallinn.</P> <BR> [[Table of contents: Arts| Table of contents: Arts]] <BR><BR>e of contents: Arts]] <BR><BR>  +
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